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jueves, julio 31, 2008


The Minneapolis Institute of Arts (MIA) is an encyclopedic fine art museum located in the Whittier neighborhood of Minneapolis, Minnesota on a campus that covers nearly 8 acres (32,000 m²) which was formerly Morrison Park. It does not charge an entrance fee (although it does charge for some special exhibitions), and allows photography of its permanent collection for personal use only. The museum receives support from the park board museum fund, levied by the Hennepin County commissioners.


Rembrandt's Lucretia in Minneapolis and the Washington D.C. version(also by Rembrandt) were shown together in 1991–1992.
Growing out of a perceived lack of fine arts in the Minneapolis area, the first meeting of what became the Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts took place in 1883. This group, made up of business and professional leaders of the time, organized art exhibits throughout the decade. In 1889, the Society, now known as the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, moved into its first permanent space inside the newly built Minneapolis Public Library.
A new museum building, designed by the firm of McKim, Mead and White, opened its doors in 1915. Built on land donated by the Morrison family formerly occupied by their Villa Rosa mansion, the museum came to be recognized as one of the finest examples of the Beaux-Arts style of architecture in Minnesota. Art historian Bevis Hillier organized an exhibition called Art Deco at the MIA that took place from July to September 1971, which caused a great resurgence of interest in this style of art. The building was originally meant to be the first of several sections but only this front piece was ultimately built; several additions have subsequently been built according to other plans, including a 1974 addition by Kenzo Tange. An expansion designed by Michael Graves was completed in June of 2006.
The building is located within the Washburn-Fair Oaks Mansion District, a neighborhood of mansions built by wealthy Minneapolis business leaders between 1880 and 1920. The district is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


An exhibit inside one of the many galleries at the MIA
The MIA features an encyclopedic collection of approximately 80,000 objects spanning 5,000 years of world history. Its collection includes paintings, photographs, prints & drawings, textiles, architecture, and decorative arts. Thee are collections of African art and art from Oceania and the Americas, and an especially strong collection of Asian art, called "one of the finest and most comprehensive Asian art collections in the country". The Asian collection includes Chinese architecture, jades, bronzes, and ceramics.
The largest item in the collection is the Purcell-Cutts House, one of the most significant examples of Prairie School architecture. The MIA restored the house at its original address and opened it to the public in 1990.


In order to encourage private collecting and assist in the acquisition of important works of art, the museum has created “Curatorial Councils” aligned with the seven curatorial areas of the museum. The councils schedule lectures, symposia, and travel for members.
The MIA features a regular series of exhibitions that bring in traveling collections from other museums for display. Local business partners fund many of these exhibitions and some feature the artists themselves leading public tours through the exhibition.
The MIA also houses the Minnesota Artists Exhibition Program (MAEP). The MAEP is an artist-controlled program devoted to the exhibition of works by artists who live in Minnesota



Dragon's Mouth, originalmente cargada por *Sherry*.



Eye of a Dragon, originalmente cargada por Dale and Lisa.

Walking through a dragon's body during the Lantern Festival



gokuu !!, originalmente cargada por Corazon.de.tiza!.

Son Goku (孫 悟空 Son Gokū?, addressed only as Goku in most English adaptations) is a fictional character from the Dragon Ball universe created by Akira Toriyama as the main protagonist for the media franchise, which consists of a series of manga, anime, soundtracks, movies, television specials, a trading card game, video games, and other collectibles. Goku is introduced as an odd, monkey-tailed boy who practices martial arts and possesses superhuman strength. In Dragon Ball Z, he is actually revealed to be from a fictional race of extraterrestrials called Saiyans, said to be the strongest warriors within the fictional universe. Goku also starred in Dragon Ball GT and made a cameo in Toriyama's self-parody series Neko Majin Z.

Son Goku
Dragon Ball character

Son Goku by Akira Toriyama
First appearance Dragon Ball chapter 1
Dragon Ball episode 1
Last appearance Dragon Ball chapter 519
Dragon Ball GT episode 64
Created by Akira Toriyama

Creation and conception

Toriyama's Goku finds his origins in one of Toriyama's earlier characters named Tanton, a fictional protagonist who appears in a one-shot series called Dragon Boy. In this story, Tanton's odd physical characteristic was bat wings. When Toriyama decided to create Dragon Ball, he used author Wu Cheng'en's Journey to the West as inspiration for his own series. Toriyama's main character had the same name of the monkey king, Sun Wukong, a central character in Journey to the West; the only alteration being that it was changed to the Japanese variant of the name, "Son Goku".

To be creative with the character, Toriyama stated that he designed Goku not as a monkey like the character Sun Wukong, but as a human-looking boy with a monkey tail. Toriyama later developed the story to where Goku is an extraterrestrial called Saiyan from a fictional planet named "Vegeta".

Plot overview
Originally named Kakarotto (カカロット Kakarotto?, addressed as Kakarrot in English adaptations), Goku is born a member of a fictional race of extraterrestrials called Saiyans, born with a lowly power level of 2. Shortly following his birth, Goku is sent from his home, a fictional planet named Vegeta, to prepare Earth for sale on the intergalactic market by destroying all its life. Due to an injury to his head that caused him severe amnesia, Goku forgets his purpose, and instead focuses on becoming stronger for little more than the pleasure of it. Goku meets a highly intelligent 16-year-old teenage girl named Bulma, the desert bandit Yamcha, and two shapeshifters named Oolong and Pu-erh. As the series continues, most of the characters introduced are basic parodies of characters found in Journey to the West. He also encounters one his closest friends, Krillin, and others during his training. Participating in several Tenkaichi Budokai, Goku also battles foes-turned-allies such as Tenshinhan and Chaozu, as well as Piccolo Daimao's offspring of the same name.

During his early adulthood, Goku meets his older brother, Raditz, an encounter that results in his death. Following the wish for his revival from the Dragon Balls, Goku continues to face other enemies thereafter linked to his heritage, such as Vegeta and even Frieza, who's actions force him to transform into a Super Saiyan. As the series continues, the focus on Goku's past is shifted away from as new enemies are introduced simply as threats to the fictional universe. After his encounter with Frieza, Goku trains his first son, Son Gohan, to be his successor. When the androids appear, Goku comes down with the heart virus that Future Trunks warned him about. Later on Goku sacrifices himself during the battle against the evil android Cell, leaving Gohan to succeed him. Goku returns to Earth seven years later from the afterlife and meets his second son, Son Goten. Shortly after he participates in the 25th Tenkaichi Budokai, however he is drawn into a battle for the universe against an extraterrestrial named Majin Buu. Goku also battles Vegeta after he is taken under control by Babidi, and the match ends in a draw. Goku then later on kills Buu with his Genki Dama after a long hard struggle. During the Tenkaichi Budokai ten years after Buu's defeat, Goku meets Buu's human reincarnation, Uub, and takes off with him in the end of the story, intending to train him as a successor (until Dragon Ball GT) after realizing that his previous successor, Gohan, had prioritized his education over his fighting. In Dragon Ball GT, Goku is transformed back into a child with a wish made by Emperor Pilaf using the Black Star Dragon Balls. Shortly after he, Trunks, and Pan all take a trip around the universe to locate the Black Star balls and return them to Earth. Goku later battles the evil Baby and destroys him using a Super Saiyan 4 transformation. Shortly after the battle with Baby, Goku defeats Super Android 17 and the evil shadow dragons. His final challenge is against Omega Shenron, who he eventually kills using the Genki Dama.


Goku is usually recognized by his uniquely styled hair, which never changes its length throughout the series except when in his Super Saiyan forms, in which his hair stands upright and turns blond. This is explained by Vegeta to be a common characteristic of full-blooded Saiyans. Due to his devotion to Earth, Goku prefers dressing in a gi uniform, and has refused offers to adorn the Saiyan battle armor, being that he considers himself an Earthling. In Dragon Ball, Goku is first seen wearing a blue uniform with a white belt, red wristbands, and black shoes. In Dragon Ball Z his most common outfit consists of an orange uniform with a blue short-sleeved undershirt, a blue belt, blue wristbands, and striped boots. Goku is often seen to adorn the kanji of his training masters; the first kanji being Muten Roshi's, "kame" ( ?, meaning "turtle"), the second kanji being North Kaio's, "kaio" ( ?, lit. "world king") and the third being his own kanji "Go" ( ?, meaning "wisdom" or "enlightenment"). Eventually he stops wearing a kanji. In Dragon Ball GT his uniform changes to a blue sleeveless shirt and yellow pants.


Goku using his Genki Dama.
Goku using his Genki Dama.

Through constant training, Goku has achieved many abilities; aside from his great strength, he also possesses super speed, reflexes, and the power to fly using chi, a fictional energy force in the series. Goku's signature technique is a chi energy blast called the Kamehameha, which he learned from Muten Roshi. Another signature technique of his is an attack that multiplies the user's chi for an instant, called the Kaiô-ken, taught to him by North Kaio. Goku's most powerful attack is the Genki Dama (renamed the Spirit Bomb in most English adaptations), a sphere created by gathering chi energy, which he also learned from North Kaio. Goku also learns a teleportation skill called Shunkan Idô (renamed Instant Transmission in most English adaptions), which he learned from the inhabitants of a fictional planet called Yardrat.

Goku is also the only Saiyan in the series to achieve all the Saiyan transformations seen in the manga. In Dragon Ball, he is able to shapeshift into a gigantic ape called an Oozaru, albeit after his Saiyan tail is removed by Kami, he no longer achieved this form.

Goku in his Super Saiyan form.
Goku in his Super Saiyan form.

During the events of Dragon Ball Z, Goku is the first Saiyan to achieve the fabled Super Saiyan state in over a millennium. He ascended to Super Saiyan after being overcome with rage by the murder of Krillin by the hand of Freeza. After several years of training with his Super Saiyan form, Goku completely overcomes the negative characteristics of the transformation in order to combat Cell. After his death against Cell, Goku continues his training in the Otherworld for seven years, and achieves both Super Saiyan 2 and Super Saiyan 3 levels. In Dragon Ball GT he achieves the last shown Saiyan transformation, Super Saiyan 4.

Goku is also able to perform a fusion technique with Vegeta in two ways: one by earrings called potara, creating Vegetto. The other by fusion dance, creating Gogeta.



Hard Times, originalmente cargada por Thomas Hawk.


lunes, julio 28, 2008


beijing national stadiums 3, originalmente cargada por The Larch.



beijing national stadiums 6, originalmente cargada por The Larch.



Beijing National Stadium, originalmente cargada por THE Tech Scoop.

The Year of the Rat, is a stadium finished for the Olympic Green in Beijing, China that was completed on March 2008.The stadium will host the main track and field competitions for the 2008 Summer Olympics, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. It is located east of the Beijing National Aquatics Centre.

In 2002, Government officials engaged architects worldwide in a design competition. Pritzker Prize-winning architects Herzog & de Meuron collaborated with ArupSport and China Architecture Design & Research Group to win the competition. Contemporary Chinese artist, Ai Weiwei, is the Artistic Consultant for design. The ground was broken on Christmas Eve December 2003, and construction started in March 2004, but was halted by the high construction cost in August 2004 and continued again. In January 2008, concerns about construction working conditions arose when it was revealed that 2 workers had died during the stadium's construction.

The stadium can seat as many as 91,000 spectators during the Olympics. The capacity will then be reduced to 80,000 after the Games. It has replaced the original intended venue of the Guangdong Olympic Stadium. The stadium is 330 metres, (1,082 feet) long by 220 metres, (721 feet) wide, and is 69.2 metres,(227 feet) tall. The stadium uses 258,000 square metres (2,777,112 square feet) of space and has a usable area of 204,000 square metres (2,195,856 square feet). It was built with 36 km of unwrapped steel, with a combined weight of 45,000 tonnes. The stadium will cost up to 3.5 billion yuan (≈423 million USD).



sum07_bejin (34), originalmente cargada por tuannaut.




viernes, julio 25, 2008


In Norse mythology, Asgard (Old Norse: Ásgarðr; meaning "Enclosure of the Æsir") is the country or capital city of the Æsir surrounded by an incomplete wall attributed to a Hrimthurs riding the stallion Svadilfari, according to Gylfaginning. Valhalla is located within Asgard.

The primary sources regarding Asgard come from the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by icelandic Snorri Sturluson, and the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from a basis of much older Skaldic poetry.

Poetic Edda
Völuspá, the first poem of the work, mentions many of the features and characters of Asgard portrayed by Snorri, such as Yggdrasil and Iðavöllr.

Prose Edda
The Prose Edda presents two views regarding Asgard.

In the Prologue Snorri offers an euhemerized and Christian-influenced interpretation of the myths and tales of his forefathers. As-gard, he conjectures, is the home of the Æsir (singular Ás) in As-ia, making a folk etymological connection between the three "As-"; that is, the Æsir were "men of Asia", not gods, who moved from Asia to the north and some of which intermarried with the peoples already there. Snorri's interpretation of the 13th century foreshadows 20th century views of Indo-European migration from the east.
Snorri further writes that Asgard is a land more fertile than any other, blessed also with a great abundance of gold and jewels. Correspondingly, the Æsir excelled beyond all other people in strength, beauty and talent.
Snorri proposes the location of Asgard as Troy, the center of the earth. About it were 12 kingdoms and 12 chiefs. One of them, Múnón, married Priam's daughter, Tróán, and had by her a son, Trór, to be pronounced Thor in Old Norse. The latter was raised in Thrace. At age 12 he was whiter than ivory, had hair lighter than gold, and could lift 10 bear skins at once. He explored far and wide. His son, Odin, led a migration to the northern lands, where they took wives and had many children, populating the entire north with Aesir. One of the sons of Odin was Yngvi, founder of the Ynglingar, an early royal family of Sweden.

In Gylfaginning, Snorri presents the mythological version taken no doubt from his sources. Icelanders were still being converted at that time. He could not present the myths as part of any current belief. Instead he resorts to a debunking device: Gylfi, king of Sweden before the Æsir, travels to Asgard and finds there a large hall (Valhalla) in Section 2.
Within are three officials, whom Gylfi in the guise of Gangleri is allowed to question about the Asgard and the Æsir. A revelation of the ancient myths follows, but at the end the palace and the people disappear in a clap of thunder and Gylfi finds himself alone on the plain, having been deluded (Section 59).
In Gylfi's delusion, ancient Asgard was ruled by the senior god, the all-father, who had twelve names. He was the ruler of everything and the creator of heaven and earth (Section 3). During a complex creation myth in which the cosmic cow licked Buri free from the ice, the sons of Buri's son, Bor, who were Odin, Vili and Vé, constructed the universe and put Midgard in it as a residence for the first human couple, Ask and Embla, whom they created from driftwood trees in Section 9.
Consistency is not to be expected from the myth. The sons of Bor then constructed Asgard (to be identified with Troy, Snorri insists in section 9) as a home for the Æsir, who were divinities. Odin is identified as the all-father. Asgard is conceived as being on the earth. A rainbow bridge, Bifröst, connects it to heaven (Section 13). In Asgard also is a temple for the 12 gods, Gladsheim, and another for the 12 goddesses, Vingólf. The plain of Idavoll is the centre of Asgard (Section 14).
The gods hold court there every day at the Well of Urd, beneath an ash tree, Yggdrasil, debating the fates of men and gods. The more immediate destinies of men are assigned by the Norns (Section 15).
Long descriptions of the gods follow. Among the more memorable details are the Valkyries, the battle maidens whom Odin sends to allot death or victory to soldiers. Section 37 names 13 Valkyries and states that the source as the Poetic Edda poem Grímnismál. Odin's residence is Valhalla, to which he takes those slain in battle, the Einherjar (Section 20). Snorri quips: "There is a huge crowd there, and there will be many more still ...." (Section 39). They amuse themselves every day by fighting each other and then going to drink in the big hall.
Toward the end of the chapter Snorri becomes prophetic, describing Ragnarök, the twilight of the gods. Much of it sounds like the Apocalypse, by which Snorri, a Christian, can hardly fail to have been influenced. It will begin with three winters of snow, with no summers in between. Wars will follow, then earthquakes and tidal waves. The sky will split open and out will ride the sons of Muspell intent on universal destruction. They will try to enter heaven but Bifröst will break (Section 55). Heimdall will blow his mighty horn Gjöll and the Æsir and Einherjar will ride out to battle. Most of the Æsir will die and Asgard be destroyed. Snorri quotes his own source saying: "The sun will go black, earth sink in the sea, heaven be stripped of its bright stars;...." (Section 56).
Afterwards, the earth rises again from the sea, is fairer than before, and where Asgard used to be a remnant of the Æsir gather, some coming up from Hel, and talk and play chess all day with the golden chessmen of the ancient Æsir, which they find in the grass (Section 58).

The 10th century Skald Þorbjörn dísarskáld is quoted in Skáldskaparmál as stating:
"Thor has defended Asgard and Ygg's [Odin's] people [the gods] with strength."

Ynglinga Saga
By the time of the Ynglinga Saga, Snorri had developed his concept of Asgard further, although the differences might be accounted for by his sources. In the initial stanzas of the poem Asagarth is the capital of Asaland, a section of Asia to the east of the Tana-kvísl or Vana-Kvísl river (kvísl is "fork"), which Snorri explains is the Tanais, or Don River, flowing into the Black Sea. The river divides "Sweden the Great", a concession to the Viking point of view. It is never called that prior to the Vikings (Section 1).
The river lands are occupied by the Vanir and are called Vanaland or Vanaheim. It is unclear what people Snorri thinks the Vanes are, whether the proto-Slavic Venedi or the east Germanic Vandals, who had been in that region at that time for well over 1000 years. He does not say; however, the Germanic names of the characters, such as Njord, Frey and Vanlandi, indicate he had the Vandals in mind.
Odin is the chief of Asagarth. From there he conducts and dispatches military expeditions to all parts of the world. He has the virtue of never losing a battle (Section 2). When he is away, his two brothers, Vili and Vé, rule Asaland from Asagarth.
On the border of Sweden is a mountain range running from northeast to southwest. South of it are the lands of the Turks, where Odin had possessions; thus, the mountains must be the Caucasus Mountains. On the north are the unihabitable fells, which must be the tundra/taiga country. Apparently the Vikings did not encounter the Urals or the Uralics of the region. Snorri evidences no knowledge of them.
There also is no mention of Troy, which was not far from Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine empire and militarily beyond the reach of the Vikings. Troy cannot have been Asagarth, Snorri realizes, the reason being that the Æsir in Asaland were unsettled by the military activities of the Romans; that is, of the Byzantine Empire.
As a result, Odin led a section of the Æsir to the north looking for new lands in which to settle. They used the Viking route up the Don and the Volga through Garðaríki, Viking Russia. From there they went to Saxland (Germany) and to the lands of Gylfi in Scandinavia (Section 5). The historical view, of course, is mainly fantastical. The Germanics were in Germany and Scandinavia during earliest mention of them in Roman literature, long before the Romans had even conquered Italy. To what extent Snorri's presentation is poetic creation only remains unclear.
Demoted from his position as all-father, or king of the gods, Odin becomes a great sorcerer in the Ynglinga Saga. He can shape-shift, speaks only in verse, and lies so well that everything he says seems true. He strikes enemies blind and deaf but when his own men fight they go berserk and cannot be harmed. He has a ship that can be rolled up like a tablecloth when not used, he relies on two talking ravens to gather intelligence, and he consults the talking head of a dwarf for prophecy (he carries it around long since detached from its body) (Section 7).
As a man, however, Odin is faced with the necessity to die. He is cremated and his possessions are burned with him so that he can ascend to - where? If Asgard is an earthly place, not there. Snorri says at first it is Valhalla and then adds: "The Swedes now believed that he had gone to the old Asagarth and would live there forever" (Section 9). Finally Snorri resorts to Heaven, even though nothing in Christianity advocates cremation and certainly the burning of possessions avails the Christian nothing.




lunes, julio 21, 2008


Catching the Red Eye, originalmente cargada por Jenny Romney.



MINDMAP OF JOSEPH CAMPBELL'S THE POWER OF MYTH, originalmente cargada por Austin Kleon.

Do ever feel like when you’re reading, you aren’t really learning anything, but you’re re-discovering what you already had inside you? That’s how it felt after reading The Power of Myth, a book companion to the PBS mini-series featuring Bill Moyers and mythologist Joseph Campbell in conversation. Having never read any Campbell (I’m starting on The Hero With A Thousand Faces next) I found it to be a great introduction to his worldview.

Campbell had a lot of wisdom for artists, but here are two of the more practical excerpts.

On having a “sacred place”:

[A sacred place] is an absolute necessity for anybody today. You must have a room, or a certain hour or so a day, where you don’t know what was in the newspapers that morning, you don’t know who your friends are, you don’t know what you owe anybody, you don’t know what anybody owes to you. This is a place where you can simply experience and bring forth what you are and what you might be. This is the place of creative incubation. At first you may find that nothing happens there. But if you have a sacred place and use it, something eventually will happen….

[O]ur life has become so economic and practical in its orientation that, as you get older, the claims of the moment upon you are so great, you hardly know where the hell you are, or what it is you intended. You are always doing something that is required of you. Where is your bliss station? You have to try to find it. Get a phonograph and put on the music that you really love, even if it’s corny music that nobody else respects.

On how to read:

Sit in a room and read—and read and read. And read the right books by the right people….When you find an author who really grabs you, read everything he has done. Don’t say, “Oh, I want to know what So-andso did”—and don’t bother at all with the best-seller list. Just read what this one author has to give you. And then you can go read what he had read. And the world opens up in a way that is consistent with a certain point of view. But when you go from one author to another, you may be able to tell us the date when each wrote such and such a poem—but he hasn’t said anything to you.




Joseph Campbell, circa 1984
Born Joseph John Campbell
March 26, 1904(1904-03-26)
White Plains,
New York,
United States
Died October 30, 1987 (aged 83)
Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
Occupation Scholar
Nationality American

Joseph John Campbell (March 26, 1904October 30, 1987) was an American mythology professor, writer, and lecturer best known for his work in the fields of comparative mythology and comparative religion. His work is vast and covers many aspects of the human experience, and his philosophy is often identified with the phrase he coined: "Follow Your Bliss".

Childhood and education

Joseph Campbell was born and raised in White Plains, New York in an upper middle class Roman Catholic family. As a child, Campbell became fascinated with Native American culture after his father took him to see the American Museum of Natural History in New York where he saw on display featured collections of Native American artifacts. He soon became versed in numerous aspects of Native American society, primarily in Native American mythology. This led to Campbell's lifelong passion for myth and to his study of and mapping of the cohesive threads in mythology that appeared to exist among even disparate human cultures. He graduated from the Canterbury School (Connecticut) in 1921. While at Dartmouth College he studied biology and mathematics, but decided that he preferred the humanities. He transferred to Columbia University where he received his B.A. in English literature in 1925 and M.A. in Medieval literature in 1927. Campbell was also an accomplished athlete, receiving awards in track and field events.


In 1927, Campbell received a fellowship provided by Columbia to study in Europe. Campbell studied Old French and Sanskrit at the University of Paris in France and the University of Munich in Germany. He quickly learned to read and speak both French and German, mastering them after only a few months of rigorous study. He remained fluent in both languages for the remainder of his life.

He was highly influenced while in Europe by the period of the Lost Generation, a time of enormous intellectual and artistic innovation. Campbell commented on this influence, particularly that of James Joyce, in The Hero's Journey: Joseph Campbell on His Life and Work (1990, first edition:28):

CAMPBELL: And then the fact that James Joyce grabbed me. You know that wonderful living in a realm of significant fantasy, which is Irish, is there in the Arthurian romances; it's in Joyce; and it's in my life.
COUSINEAU: Did you find that you identified with Stephen Daedalus...in Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man?
CAMPBELL: His problem was my problem, exactly...Joyce helped release me into an understanding of the universal sense of these symbols...Joyce disengaged himself and left the labyrinth, you might say, of Irish politics and the church to go to London, where he became one of the very important members of this marvelous movement that Paris represented in the period when I was there, in the '20s.

It was in this climate that Campbell was also introduced to the work of Thomas Mann, who was to prove equally influential upon his life and ideas. Also while in Europe, Campbell was introduced to modern art, becoming particularly enthusiastic about the work of Paul Klee and Pablo Picasso. A new world of exciting ideas opened up to Campbell while studying in Europe. Here he also discovered the works and writings of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. It was also during this time, as well, that he met and became friends with the young Jiddu Krishnamurti, a friendship which began his lifelong interest in Hindu philosophy and mythology. In addition, after the death of Indologist Heinrich Zimmer, Campbell was given the task to edit and posthumously publish Zimmer's papers.

Return to the United States and the Great Depression

On his return from Europe in 1929, Campbell announced to his faculty at Columbia that his time in Europe had broadened his interests and that he wanted to study Sanskrit and Modern art in addition to Medieval literature. When his advisors did not support this, Campbell decided not to go forward with his plans to earn a doctorate and never returned to a conventional graduate program (The Hero's Journey: Joseph Campbell on His Life and Work, 1990, first edition: 54).

A few weeks later, the Great Depression began. Campbell would spend the next five years (1929-1934) trying to figure out what to do with his life (Larsen and Larsen, 2002:160) and he engaged in a period of intensive and rigorous independent study. Campbell discussed this period in The Hero's Journey: Joseph Campbell on His Life and Work (1990, first edition:52-3). Campbell states that he "would divide the day into four four-hour periods, of which I would be reading in three of the four hour periods, and free one of them...I would get nine hours of sheer reading done a day. And this went on for five years straight."

He also traveled to California for a year (1931-32), continuing his independent studies and becoming close friends with the budding writer John Steinbeck and his wife Carol (Larsen and Larsen, 2002, chapters 8 and 9). Campbell also maintained his independent reading while teaching for a year in 1933 at the Canterbury School during which time he also attempted to publish works of fiction (Larsen and Larsen, 2002:214).

Campbell's independent studies led to his greater exploration of the ideas of the Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, a contemporary and estranged colleague of Sigmund Freud. Campbell edited the first Eranos conference papers and helped to found Princeton University Press' Bollingen Press. Another dissident member of Freud's circle to influence Campbell was Wilhelm Stekel (1868 - 1939). Stekel pioneered the application of Freud's conceptions of dreams, fantasies of the human mind, and the unconscious to such fields as anthropology and literature.

Sarah Lawrence College

In 1934, Campbell was offered a position as professor at Sarah Lawrence College (through the efforts of his former Columbia advisor W.W. Laurence). Campbell married one of his former students, dancer and dance instructor Jean Erdman, in 1938. He retired from Sarah Lawrence College in 1972, after having taught there for 38 years.


Joseph Campbell died at the age of 83 on October 30, 1987, at his home in Honolulu, Hawaii, from complications due to esophageal cancer shortly after completing filming of The Power of Myth with Bill Moyers.

Select works

James Joyce and early works

As noted above, James Joyce was an important influence on Campbell. Campbell's first important book (with Henry Morton Robinson), A Skeleton Key to Finnegans Wake (1944), is a critical analysis of Joyce's final text Finnegans Wake. In addition, Campbell's seminal work, The Hero with a Thousand Faces, discusses what Campbell termed the monomyth -- the cycle of the journey of the hero, an idea which he directly attributes to Joyce's Finnegans Wake.

The Masks of God

His massive four-volume work The Masks of God covers mythology from around the world, from ancient to modern. Where The Hero with a Thousand Faces focused on the commonality of mythology (the “elementary ideas”), the Masks of God books focus upon historical and cultural variations the monomyth takes on (the “folk ideas”). In other words, where The Hero with a Thousand Faces draws perhaps more from psychology, the Masks of God books draw more from anthropology and history. The four volumes of Masks of God are as follows: Primitive Mythology, Oriental Mythology, Occidental Mythology, and Creative Mythology.

The Historical Atlas of World Mythology

At the time of his death, Campbell was in the midst of working upon a large-format, lavishly illustrated series entitled The Historical Atlas of World Mythology. This series was to build on Campbell’s idea, first presented in The Hero with a Thousand Faces, that myth evolves over time through four stages:

The Way of the Animal Powers -- the myths of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers which focus on shamanism and animal totems.

The Way of the Seeded Earth -- the myths of Neolithic, agrarian cultures which focus upon a mother goddess and associated fertility rites.

The Way of the Celestial Lights -- the myths of Bronze Age city-states with pantheons of gods up ruling from the heavens, led by a masculine god-king.

The Way of Man -- religion and philosophy as it developed after the Axial Age (c. 6th century BC), in which the mythic imagery of previous eras was made consciously metaphorical, reinterpreted as referring to psycho-spiritual, not literal-historical, matters. This transition is evidenced in the East by Buddhism, Vedanta, and philosophical Taoism; and in the West by the Mystery Cults, Platonism and Gnosticism.

Only the first two volumes were completed at the time of Campbell's death. Both are now out-of-print.

The Power of Myth

Campbell's widest popular recognition followed his collaboration with Bill Moyers on the PBS series The Power of Myth, which was first broadcast in 1988, the year following Campbell's death. The series exposed his ideas concerning mythological, religious, and psychological archetypes to a wide audience, and captured the imagination of millions of viewers. It remains a staple of PBS television membership drives to this day. A companion book, The Power of Myth, containing expanded transcripts of their conversations, was released shortly after the original broadcast, and became a best seller.

Thou Art That: Transforming Religious Metaphor

A recent compilation of many of his ideas is titled Thou Art That: Transforming Religious Metaphor. In it Campbell writes:"...Mythology is often thought of as other people's religions, and religion can be defined as mis-interpreted mythology." In other words, Campbell did not read religious symbols literally as historical facts, but instead he saw them as symbols or as metaphors for greater philosophical ideas.

Campbell had previously discussed this idea with Bill Moyers in The Power of Myth:

CAMPBELL: That would be a mistake in the reading of the symbol. That is reading the words in terms of prose instead of in terms of poetry, reading the metaphor in terms of the denotation instead of the connotation.
MOYERS: And poetry gets to the unseen reality.
CAMPBELL: That which is beyond even the concept of reality, that which transcends all thought. The myth puts you there all the time, gives you a line to connect with that mystery which you are (Campbell, 1988:57).

Campbell's original voice

Campbell relied often upon the writings of Carl Jung as an explanation of psychological phenomena, as experienced through archetypes. But Campbell did not necessarily agree with Jung upon every issue, and had very definite ideas of his own.

A fundamental belief of Campbell's was that all spirituality is a search for the same basic, unknown force from which everything came, within which everything currently exists, and into which everything will return. This elemental force is ultimately “unknowable” because it exists before words and knowledge. Although this basic driving force cannot be expressed in words, spiritual rituals and stories refer to the force through the use of "metaphors" - these metaphors being the various stories, deities, and objects of spirituality we see in the world. For example, the Genesis myth in the Bible ought not be taken as a literal description of actual events, but rather its poetic, metaphorical meaning should be examined for clues concerning the fundamental truths of the world and our existence.

Accordingly, Campbell believed the religions of the world to be the various, culturally influenced “masks” of the same fundamental, transcendent truths. All religions, including Christianity and Buddhism, can bring one to an elevated awareness above and beyond a dualistic conception of reality, or idea of “pairs of opposites,” such as being and non-being, or right and wrong. Indeed, he quotes in the preface of The Hero with a Thousand Faces: "Truth is one, the sages speak of it by many names." which is a translation of the Rig Vedic saying "Ekam Sat Vipra Bahuda Vadanthi."

Campbell was fascinated with what he viewed as basic, universal truths, expressed in different manifestations across different cultures. For example, in the preface of The Hero with a Thousand Faces, he indicated that a goal of his was to demonstrate similarities between Eastern and Western religions. In his four-volume series of books "The Masks of God", Campbell tried to summarize the main spiritual threads common throughout the world. Tied in with this, was his idea that many of the belief systems of the world which expressed these universal truths had a common geographic ancestry, starting off on the fertile grasslands of Europe in the Bronze Age and moving to the Levant and the "Fertile Crescent" of Mesopotamia and back to Europe (and the Far East), where it was mixed with the newly emerging Indo-European (Aryan) culture.

Heroes and the monomyth

The role of the hero figured largely in Campbell's comparative studies. In 1949 The Hero with a Thousand Faces introduced his idea of the monomyth (as stated above, a word borrowed from Joyce), which outlined some of the archetypal patterns Campbell recognized. Heroes were important to Campbell because, to him, they conveyed universal truths about one's personal self-discovery and self-transcendence, one's role in society, and the relationship between the two.




Be zen, be balance... , originalmente cargada por StoneMen.

Stone in balance. For "Jackie"...


sábado, julio 19, 2008


la calaverita, originalmente cargada por hinton.jennie.

The word calavera, Spanish for "skull", can refer to a number of cultural phenomena associated with the Mexican celebration of the Day of the Dead.

Calaveras de azúcar ("sugar skulls") are used to adorn altars and can be eaten.

Calaveras are poems, written for the Day of the Dead but intended to humorously criticize the living.

Calavera can refer to any artistic representations of skulls, such as the lithographs of José Guadalupe Posada







The Law of Attraction is commonly associated with New Age and New Thought theories. It posits that one should never dwell on the negative, as the "metaphysical principle of life" is embodied in a "law of attraction" that states "you get what you think about; your thoughts determine your destiny." It is also said that emotions are the factor that increase or decrease the speed of attraction relative to how much you feel about the subject you are attempting to attract.

The phrase Law of Attraction, although used widely by esoteric writers, does not have a consensual definition. However, the general consensus among New Thought thinkers is that the Law of Attraction takes the principal "Like Attracts Like" and applies it to conscious desire. That is, a person's thoughts (conscious and unconscious), emotions, and beliefs cause a change in the physical world that attracts positive or negative experiences that correspond to the aforementioned thoughts, with or without the person taking action to attain such experiences. This process has been described as "harmonious vibrations of the law of attraction", or "you get what you think about; your thoughts determine your experience".

The phrase is closely associated with New Thought beliefs and practices, from which its most common definition arises, but it also has a long standing (and more complex development) in other esoteric fields such as Hermeticism and Theosophy. Recently, the New Thought version was popularized by the 2006 film The Secret.

The more materialistic interpretations of The Law of Attraction have been criticized. The scientific community cites the misuse of the scientific term law and the lack of any scientific evidence for the claims made by advocates for the Law of Attraction, and by some proponents within the New Thought Movement and spirituality in general.

Many people who accept the Law of Attraction as a guide for right living do so on the basis of their faith in the Universe and The Universe's 'Laws'; thus, to them, the nature of the 'Law' is not one to be settled scientifically, and the word 'Law' carries the same belief-based weight as non-scientific 'Laws' from other religions, such as the 'Law of Karma' and the Ten Commandments. This is especially true among those who are adherents of various New Thought. One common way that New Thought adherents utilize the Law of Attraction is through the practice of positive affirmations.

Some proponents of a more modern version of the Law of Attraction claim that it has roots in Quantum Physics. According to them, thoughts have an energy that attracts like energy. In order to control this energy, proponents state that people must practice four things:

  • Know what one desires and ask the universe for it. (The "universe" is mentioned broadly, stating that it can be anything the individual envisions it to be, from God to an unknown source of energy.)
  • Focus one's thought upon the thing desired with great feeling such as enthusiasm or gratitude.
  • Feel and behave as if the object of one's desire is already acquired.
  • Be open to receiving it.